Speech Sound Experiments, Sound Machines, Electroacoustic Music, Multimedia – Face to Face with the State

From Unearthing The Music

Carlfriedrich Claus - Politpsychologische Improvisation

Speech Sound Experiments, Sound Machines, Electroacoustic Music, Multimedia – Face to Face with the State: An essay by Gisela Nauck for Sound Exchange.


»We're going to have machines capable of composing symphonies [...]. Despite all the stupid experiments in the West, I regard these experiments with electronic music to be useful. I assume that mechanical reproduction will prevail, that the scientific electronic technology will also play an enormous role in music, that Müller the sweating trombonist will be replaced by a machine – and especially the conductor as well. I regard this as enormous progress!« [1] These sentences, which were uttered during a conversation with the drama expert Hans Bunge in 1962 (but first published in 1983!), came from Hanns Eisler. At the beginning of the 1960s, they described a vision – yet 24 years would pass before the basis was established for honouring that vision in the GDR. »The ›post-modern‹ artistic concept (of life) from Ru-In, which was very powerfully aligned to a perception of the world and itself, was fed by a unique mixture of pictorial, theatrical, magic-ritual, performative, tonal, scientific-analytical, philosophical, as well as politico-social skills. Key directions for this were provided by artists, researchers and philosophers such as Mary Wigman, Joseph Beuys, Carlfriedrich Claus, John Cage, Frank Zappa, Morton Feldman, Merce Cunningham, Jan Gebser, Ken Wilber or Fred Frith – a highly personal list of names which can still be extended both historically and thematically. The radical reference to the intensity and immediate presence of perception went far beyond ›sound samples‹ and ›sound performances‹«. [2] Taking the Dresden-based performance group Ru-In as an example, the cultural scientist Klaus Nicolai retrospectively marked the outcome of an artistic departure and breakout which pulled out all the stops of an artistic-tonal otherness as the signs became clear of an impending artistically subversive revolt at the end of the 1980s. The two quotations from the Leipzig-based composer Hanns Eisler and the Dresden-based cultural scientist Klaus Nicolai describe the field of experimental music in the GDR which was responsible for expanding the scope of composition, tonality and performance, in a threefold respect: 1. The forms of expression of experimental departures and breakouts were diverse in terms of tonality and art sociology, ranging from electroacoustic or electronic music to speech experiments, the invention of sound machines through to intermedial actions from painting, dance, sound improvisation, music and literature. 2. The processes of transferring the experimental into a performance practice sanctioned by the culture policy were arduous, protracted and often fruitless; efforts were made for a quarter of a century before it became possible from 1986 onwards to produce the electronic music predicted by Eisler in a studio of its own. 3. Despite differences in the artistic and musical approaches, there was a commonality that was typical of the GDR: as an expression of a dialectic »perception of the world and oneself,« artistic experiments were integrated into the overarching cultural-political confrontation with the cultural reprisals of the state, and thus also connoted as autonomous pieces, both politically as well as contextually.

It should be kept in mind when considering the »Sound Exchange« project from a GDR perspective that what is termed experimental here – especially under the conditions of a political dictatorship – can only be reasonably defined in the context of a history of music, and thus becomes, in an international comparison, a relative term. When »cultural policy puts art and even wordless music in chains«, as Christfried-Michael Winkler, composer and the organist in Dresden's Kreuzkirche church, wrote in retrospect, [3] the scope for action and the yardsticks for the experimental are very different the free development of art in an unrestricted international exchange. The »chains« in the GDR consisted in the field of music – broadly speaking – of a prescribed, classicist ideal of music aligned with a bourgeois ideal of the Enlightenment and a cultural-political denunciation of everything experimental as bourgeois decadence. The impacts of these cultural-political sanctions continued (e.g. concerning the music of John Cage and Morton Feldman, among others) right into the late 1980s. At the same time, however, the contemporary music scene in the GDR was marked by a permanent yet productive contradiction: even concerts of performances that were unwanted from a cultural-political perspective were official, public events. This interweaving of »subversive« components with the practice of official performances in state-supported concert series and festivals, such as the Berliner Musik-Biennale (Berlin Music Biennial, since 1967), the DDR-Musiktage (GDR Music Event, since 1968), the Dresdner Tage für Zeitgenössische Musik (Dresden Contemporary Music Event, since 1987), in concerts and festivals from the District Composers' Associations, the Culture Association, and so on (including scathing reviews in state-conformist newspapers), made possible the establishment of subversive niches as free spaces. The dense network of commissioned work and the performing opportunities within a large number of national and regional festivals ensured that experimental sound expansions also had a place in the official public music arena. This was however a constant struggle, and several of the experimental pieces were not performed in the GDR – they were at best performed in West Germany. It was also typical that this classicist ideal of music consisted solely of subsidising the bourgeois music apparatus: orchestras, chamber ensembles, opera houses, choirs and the relevant forms of music – but not, for example, the establishment of an electronic studio. In the GDR, experiments were aimed – with a few exceptions – at displacing and overcoming, piece by piece, the musical and aesthetic limits determined by classic instrumental and vocal »apparatuses«. This process began in the 1960s and was decisively expanded by the upcoming young generation in the 1980s.

By being integrated into the finely-woven network of a functioning public commissioning body, there were no composers who could have remained »undiscovered.« But there were composers, such as Hans-Karsten Raecke (b. 1941), Tilo Medek (b. 1940), Thomas Hertel (b. 1951), Johannes Wallmann (b. 1952), Nicolaus Richter de Vroe (b. 1955) or the jazz and improvisation musician Lothar Fiedler, who were unable to bear the political, cultural and aesthetic constrictions and emigrated to West Germany between 1977 and 1988. With Hans-Karsten Raecke, the GDR music scene lost its sole experimental sound researcher in the early 1970s; with Thomas Hertel, a scenic and intermedial creative talent; and with Johannes Wallmann, the sole vision of a complete concept of space, sound, architecture and landscape, one which he was first able to realise musically beyond the GDR. With this background in mind, six areas of composed music can be identified in the GDR which can be included under the concept of »Sound Exchange«; the order corresponds roughly to the historic chronology. Musical directions such as rock, punk, musical theatre, jazz, improvisation and hybrid forms, which also reacted more offensively to the culture policy, are not considered here.

Speech-Sound Extensions of Instrumental Music for Concerts and Instrumental Theatre

The first extensions of instrumental sound were made by including texts as equally valid sound material. By connecting this with scenic elements, an »instrumental theatre« typical of the GDR was developed. The decisive composers and productions here were Georg Katzer, for example with »Szene für Kammerensemble« (Scene for Chamber Ensemble, 1975); Friedrich Schenker, »Kammerspiel II ›Missa nigra‹« (Chamber Piece II »Missa nigra«, scenic chamber music for seven instrumentalists and one action artist, 1978), and »Jessenin Majakowski Recital« (for eight instrumentalists and audio tape, 1981); Paul-Heinz Dittrich, »Quasie« (phonetic-instrumental exercise for clarinet, vocals, piano, two narrators and audio tape, 1971), or the scenic chamber music »Die Verwandlung« (The Metamorphosis, inspired by Kafka, 1983). In Dittrich's first »String Quartet« with Audio Tape (1971), the short part to be spoken by the instrumentalist at the end extends the pure sound piece into a communicative game with the listeners, who are challenged by the composer to continue listening »for the audible and the inaudible« at the end of the very noise-like piece. The idea of »instrumental theatre« would be further developed in the next generation, especially by Ralf Hoyer, for example with »Allgemeine Erwartung« (General Expectation, action for two pianos and an actor, text: Volker Braun, 1979) and by Thomas Hertel / Karla Kochta, (»Hölderlin Report«, 1982). By contrast, in compositions by Annette Schlünz (b. 1964) and others, the voice is treated as an instrument. It embodies the words in musical gestures, reducing them to vocals which become speechless next to sounds which do not react to them, for example in »Bei Spuren von Wasser und Salz« (In Traces of Water and Salt, for high mezzo-soprano and 11 instrumentalists, text: Else Lasker-Schüler, 1987). Speech and speaking, sounds and soundings provide at the same time a contextual complexity, as well as a phonetic-tonal differentiation of the musical material.

Speech Sound Experiments

It was not music but rather visual arts and literature which were the starting point for the various forms of sound poetry. »Even in 1982, on the occasion of the Sa-um-Podium in Leipzig, where texts from Russian Futurists were presented, among others, Carlfriedrich Claus (born 1930) was regarded as the sole representative of sound poetry in the GDR.« [4] It was only from the mid-1980s onwards that authors in the young literature scene, such as Stefan Döring, Gabi Kachold, Bert Papenfuss, Peter Wawerzinek, Valeri Scherstjanoi and so on, began writing »acoustic poetry,« and mostly gave readings only in private circles. While the young literati formalised this in quasi-political radical acts of speech in order to negate prevailing use of language, the utterly singular artist Carlfriedrich Claus, who remained unrecognised in the GDR to the very end, also created »sound texts« in addition to his visual art. The syllables and consonants »no longer seem to be related in a communicative language, […] but rather in the context of an autonomous ›sound event‹ intended to awaken the listener's sensitivity for the plasticity and colour of speech«. [5] The first »sound texts and speech drills« was recorded on audio tape in 1959, and subsequently developed further in »sound processes« (e.g. »Bewusstseinstätigkeit im Schlaf«, Awareness Activity in Sleep, 1981).

Preparations – Instrument Inventors – Sound Machines

Specially prepared sound expansions to grand pianos brought a radical sound that was unique to GDR music. Hans-Karsten Raecke (b. 1941) had already in the 1970s developed the grand piano into a separate instrument, called the »sound enhanced grand piano«, which was also expanded electronically and became one of his main instruments. In 1971 he began to explore its potential by applying various preparations. His preparation system, which developed over years, is tuned in a set of notes and consists of 12 sound groups, ranging from pure piano notes to noises. In 1974, while he was a lecturer in the field of musicology at Humboldt University Berlin, he founded the »Berliner Klangwerkstatt« (Berlin Sound Workshop) as a podium for such experimental research on instruments, extending this as far as the construction of new wind and stringed instruments (e. g. the rubber-ophone, the wind-bamboo-wire-box). Herrmann Keller (b. 1945) is one of the few composers to have systematically utilised the prepared piano in his compositions since the 1980s (e. g. piano concert 1980, »Neues Klavierbüchlein« (New Little Book for Piano, 1987). A further important aspect for him in the development of a completely idiosyncratic, textured universe of sound was the synthesis of jazz-inspired improvisations and composed music through to the development of improvisation models, e. g. »Ex tempore VI« (1975), »Improvisationsmodelle für offene Besetzung« (Improvisation Models for Open Instrumentation), »Begegnung '78. Musikalisches Stegreifspiel für 11 Musiker« (Encounter '78. Musical Extemporising for 11 Musicians), together with the jazz musician Manfred Schulze. The social and communicative aspect was important for the creation of sounds, something which also included the integration of the audience as participators (»Weggehen – Wiederkommen« (Leaving – Returning, for four musicians, 1988). The work by Erwin Stache (b. 1960), an »adventurer in the triangle of physics-music-electroacoustics« (Radjo Monk), is completely unique in terms of the sound objects he invents. He has worked since 1983 as a freelance musician and »device constructor«. The starting point for his inventions of highly imaginative sound objects came in 1976, when he constructed his own synthesiser under the most difficult conditions – it was extremely hard to procure materials.. The first results, constructed from waste materials, were the »Klang – Hund« (Sound – Dog, with 34 buttons, 41 sound generators, 24 dividers, and keys made of bronze springs – one and a half octaves) in 1976 and the electronic organ »Polyphon B« in 1979. The first sound objects driven by a motor were the »Klangfederstab« (Sound Spring Bar) in 1988 and the »Murmelzither« (Marble Zither) in 1989. In Erwin Stache's sound objects, sound becomes its own unique tonal language of the mechanical and electrical motion of materials.

Space – Sound – Architecture – Landscape

The first spatial composition came in 1979 with Georg Katzer's »Sound-House« for orchestra, orchestra groups, organ and audio tape. It is true that the »spatialisation« of instrumental music did not per se lead to a »change in sound«, but rather to a change in the acoustics of listening. This is the case to a unique extent with Katzer, because in his piece the orchestra's instruments have to simulate electronic sounds. The most enduring pursuit of the dimensions of spatial music-making was led by Johannes Wallmann (b. 1952), who opened up a direction all his own in the context of the »Sound Exchange« concept: music was transported in a comprehensive concept incorporating space, sound, architecture and landscape. There were however no opportunities whatsoever to realise this in the political cage that was the GDR. At the same time as Katzer's »Sound-House«, the first multimedia spatial composition was created in the GDR with »Synopsis – Musik im Raum für Kammerensemble zu Diaprojektionen« (Synopsis – Music in Space for Chamber Ensemble to Slide Projections) by K.W. Streubel. This was followed by fusion-de-fusion, music in space for a chamber ensemble (1980–81) and »gleich den Vögeln. ein hörgeleitetes musikalisches Kommunikationsspiel für 4 voneinander weitentfernte Klarinetten oder 4 Sopransaxophone« (Like the Birds. A Listening Led Musical Communication Play for 4 Clarinets Separated from Each Other or 4 Soprano Saxophones, 1986/92), further works which made tonal-discursive use of space. The basic features of the »integral art concept«, which was an important theoretical basis for the subsequent landscape sound pieces, were still being developed up to 1988 in the GDR. It only proved possible to realise projects such as the »Festival Klang Zeit Wuppertal« (Festival Sound Time Wuppertal, 1991–92), the city sounds composition »Glocken Requiem Dresden« (Bells Requiem Dresden, 1995) or the landscape sounds composition »KlangFelsen Helgoland« (Sounds Rocks Heelgoland, 1996) outside the GDR or after its collapse.

Electroacoustic and Electronic Music

The wide field of experimental sound research and exploration was linked in the GDR to working in a studio. And the fact that comparatively few composers worked in this area was due largely to the lack of a studio. Until the opening of the electronic studio at the Academy of the Arts Berlin in Herrmann-Matern-Strasse street in 1986, electronic or electroacoustic compositions were produced in studios in Warsaw, Belgrade, Bratislava, Budapest, Bourges, Freiburg im Breisgau or Stockholm. One potential alternative from 1976 onwards was the theatre's own studio in the Theater im Palast, which was directed by Eckhard Rödger and used especially for performances of live electronic pieces, for which Rödger initiated the »Elektroakustische Musik im TiP« (Electroacoustic Music in TiP) event series. There was a strikingly large number of electroacoustic and live electronic compositions, but the most innovative potential was ascribed to pure audio tape music. [6] It was important for all three directions – audio tape music, electroacoustic music and live electronic music – to transcend the »romantic« instrumental sound in order to »bring about changed conceptions of sound in a contemporary manner«. [7] Katzer called these compositions audio plays. It was typical for electronic music in the GDR to have conceptual considerations about »why, when, where and the extent to which electronic sound material is to be used,« [8] in other words to position it in a concrete musical and contextual setting. The near-infinite dimensions of sound spaces now available exercised a particular fascination, as indeed did the options to choose specific media, as well as the synthesis of the most heterogeneous materials, the modification of the instrumental sound using live electronics, the addition of space as an design and structural element, as well as, in the case of tape recordings, the independence of the artist.

One of the first electroacoustic compositions, which also proved a landmark in aesthetic standards, was Paul-Heinz Dittrich's 1970 piece, »Kammermusik I« (Chamber Music I) for four woodwinds, piano and audio tape. Other early works included »Die anonyme Stimme« (The Anonymous Voice, for oboe, trombone and audio tape, 1972) and »Cantus II« for soprano, violoncello (replaced by an EMS synthesiser for live performances), orchestra and audio tape (1977). An equally important piece was Friedrich Schenker's »Hörstück mit Oboe« (Audio Play with Oboe, for oboe and audio tape, 1971). It was also an example of the absurdity of cultural policy, which the composer and musicians, however, knew how to turn to their own benefit: it was the first piece of electronic music officially commissioned by the Rundfunk der DDR (GDR state radio), but due to the lack of a studio it had to be produced in the privately-constructed studio of Leipzig-based sound engineer Eckart Rödger.

Not only did Georg Katzer (b. 1935), one of the pioneers of electronic music in the GDR, create important compositions (e. g. the electroacoustic »Rondo – bevor Ariadne kommt«, Rondo – Before Ariadne Comes, 1976; or »Dialog imaginär 1 & 2«, Imaginary Dialogue 1, for flute, 1981, and »2«, for piano, 1987), he was also committed to the development of the studio in the Academy of the Arts, of which he was artistic director at the time. The person who worked most intensively and comprehensively with the new electronic medium was Lothar Voigtländer (b. 1943), and he also could boast the largest number of compositions (22) in the most diverse genres. He wrote chamber music for very different arrangements with instruments and live electronics or audio tape (e. g. »Variation und Collage« (Variation and Collage, for voice and audio tape, 1978); »Drei Porträts mit Schatten« (Three Portraits with Shadows, inspired by F. G. Lorca, for voice, violoncello, vibraphone, playback tape and live electronic sounds, 1980), electroacoustic compositions like »Drei elektronische Studien« (Three Electronic Studies, for voice, piano and playback tape, lyrics: Erich Arendt, 1975), radiophone pieces (radiophone Motette »ex voce II«, 1980), multimedia works with painting (the multimedia project »Guillevic-Recital« with painting projections by Dieter Tucholke, for narrator and playback tape, 1986) and space music (e. g. Space-Music No. 3 »Sonic Landscape«, 1982).

The subsequent generation showed a greater interest in creating electroacoustic compositions. Important representatives of this generation were Ralf Hoyer (b. 1950) with »Studie 4« for contrabass and audio tape (1980) and »… ich war's, ich bin's … Erkundungen zum Thema Prometheus« (... I Was It, I Am It... Explorations on the Theme of Prometheus, for piano, audio tape, and live electronics, 1982–83), Lutz Glandien (b. 1954) (»Wyssotzki-Musik«, audio tape composition, 1984, »Cut«, audio tape composition, 1988, »Weiter so«, Keep It Up, for string quartet and audio tape, 1989); Helmut Zapf (b. 1956) (»Wandlungen«, Transformations, for trombone and audio tape, 1986; »2:1« for bass clarinet, soprano saxophone – one player and tape, 1990); Klaus Martin Kopitz (b. 1955) (»Mein Leben in der Wüste«, My Life in the Desert, 1989); and Robert Linke (b. 1958). One remarkable point in the brief history of electroacoustic and electronic music in the GDR is the fact that it actually began in 1957, many years before Eisler's visionary comment. Beginning in that year, the qualified engineer Gerhard Steinke had been studying the electronic generation of sound at the RFZ Central Office for Broadcasting and Television Technology of the Deutsche Post company in Berlin-Adlershof, and in 1958–59 he published his first thoughts about establishing an experimental studio. In 1960, RFZ engineers working under Steinke's direction constructed the sound and noise generating subharchord, which was enthusiastically received internationally. In the mid-1960s, Steinke and his engineers configured an experimental studio for the Rundfunk der DDR (GDR state radio). Construction was stopped in 1967 and the equipment already manufactured was sold at a loss. In 1970 work on the studio was completely abandoned. In addition to radio plays and film scores, compositions were also created there, such as »Galilei« for voice and electronic sounds, using words from Brecht (1966), by Siegfried Matthus (b. 1934): »Studie II«, which was subsequently renamed »Protest« (1966), by the Rundfunk der DDR composer and sound director, together with Bernd Wefelmeyer (b. 1940); or Joachim Turm's »Moments Musicaux«, still trapped in the classic idiom, for electronic sounds and musical instruments (1965). P.S.: The person who effected the most radical change in the world of instrumental sound generation at the end of the 1980s – without electronics, except for one composition (pianissimo for viola and live electronics, 1989–90) – was Jakob Ullmann (b. 1958), with his aesthetic concept of »quietude« and arrhythmia embedded in highly differentiated noise/sound material (e. g. »Ensemblekomposition« (Ensemble Composition), a work in progress for 17 musicians and 17 actors, 1986; »son imaginaire III« for instrumental groups, 1988–89).

Multimedia Projects: Painting (Action Painting), Dance, Music (Improvisation), Light, Electronics

Multimedia projects drew on two sources. The first were the subversive artistic processes, quoted in relation to the Ru-In group at the beginning, and based on visual artists, which were initiated in Dresden by painters such as Helge Leihberg, A. R. Penck and others. The taboo-breaking aspect here was less artistic than existential. Improvisational processes of sound, noise, colour and/or dance were »human encounters beyond prevailing conventions, fears and expectations«. [9] The Ru-In manifesto, which was published in 1991 in the Sächsische Zeitung newspaper, was entitled »Sharpening the Senses, Against Civic Dulling«. The festival »Intermedia I: Klangbild – Farbklang« (Intermedia I: Sound Image – Colour Sound), which was held on the 1st and 2nd of June 1985 in Coswig, near Dresden, became legendary. Composers were barely involved in this scene, it was more home to jazz, punk and improvisation musicians.

The second source for multimedia works were flexibly applicable acoustic electronics, which were soon extended to include video. Sound expansions occurred as an integration of, and reaction to, the potential for expression and design in the visual arts. Already in 1975 – and still without electronics – the graphic artist Hans-Hendrik Grimmling and the composer Thomas Hertel developed the »Dokumentation für 12 Grafiken u. 16 Instrumente« (Documentation for 12 Graphics and 16 Instruments). Hertel was also involved in a further early project: »workshop I: Interferenzen« (Workshop I: Interferences), a collaboration with Wilfried Krätzschmar, Matthias Kleemann and Christian Münch in 1979 for the Dresden Music Festival in the Studiotheater des Kulturpalastes. One year later, Georg Katzer founded the workshop event »Kontakte« (Contacts) in the Academy of the Arts Berlin, presenting attempts to synthesise electroacoustic music with film, video, dance and visual art. Young people in particular attended these events in their hundreds. Lothar Voigtländer developed syntheses from painting, graphics and dance. Georg Katzer transformed, together with the director Alexander Stillmark, several of his own electroacoustic audio plays into scenic or optical adaptations, such as for instance »Aide – mémoire (sieben Alpträume aus der tausendjährigen Nacht«, Seven Nightmares from the Thousand-Year Night, 1983) or, together with Stillmark and the painter Rose Schulz, the scenic-optical audio piece »La mechanique et les agents de l'érosion« (1985–86). The work »Räume« (Spaces, 1987) from Rose Schulze, with slide projections of an abandoned Soviet Army barracks, reduced the performative part to an image-sound installation.

Wolfgang Heisig represents a special case of multimedia work. The centrepiece of Heisig's musical imagination is formed by the nullification of the everyday in artistic situations. Not only tones, rhythms and sounds, words, syllables and phonemes, but also found items, such as used travel tickets or discarded instruments, including a merry-go-round organ (»Recycling«, 1990), have provided the sound material for his laconic pieces, with a computer, scanner and software expanding the compositional tool kit; he has created sound objects, music plays, visual compositions and an advent calendar. In the »Ringparabel« (Ring Parable, 1987), various working methods merge in a total, multimedia work of art. Furthermore, with the »Phonoliten« (Phonolites, 1990) – one of his so-called »sound furniture« pieces – he developed a sound sculpture (there are also versions for mechanical piano and musical box).

Certainly the most offensive and artistically subversive multimedia work at the end of the GDR was Robert Link's »Tannhäuser. Requiem. Die letzten romantischen Bilder eines Übergangs, Ouvertüre zum utopischen Kongreß und Karneval« (Tannhäuser. Requiem. The Last Romantic Images of a Transition, Overture to the Utopian Congress and Carnival) for a singer, three women, musicians, a conductor, drummer and audience, based on a text by Lothar Trolle. The première of this »multimedia network« [10] with students from the Dresden Academy of Music, freelance artists and amateur actors was held in 1991 in the Kleine Szene der Staatsoper Dresden venue: a »huge collage of singing in the most varied of shades, chamber music, literature, pantomime, visual art in the form of slide projections and several projection surfaces (such as on the limbs of an actress, among others) with sound, video and film technology. All of these elements seem to be running parallel to each other in an unrelated manner, yet their very unrelatedness seems to have its own logic which seems to be alien, yet creates its own specific sense.« [11] It is a piece about media abuse, the museum-like entanglements of our everyday life and the utopia of breaking out.


[1] Hanns Eisler, »Musik und Politik, Schriften. Addenda« (Music and Politics, Writings. Addenda), critical edition from Günther Mayer, Leipzig 1983, p. 313, quoted from Manfred Machlitt, »Das Studio für elektroakustische Musik der Akademie der Künste der DDR« (The Studio for Electroacoustic Music at the GDR Academy of the Arts), (viewed August 2012).

[2] Klaus Nicolai, Radikale Selbst- und Weltwahrnehmung. Das Dresdner Klang-Projekt Ru-In und sein Umfeld (Radical Perception of Oneself and the World. The Dresden Sound Project Ru-In and Its Surroundings), in: Positionen. Beiträge zur neuen Musik (Positions. Contributions to New Music), 62/2005, p. 29.

[3] Michael-Christfried Winkler, Diverse Dissonante Reminiszenzen an eine verschwindende Kultur (Diverse Dissonant Reminiscences of a Disappearing Culture), quoted from Positionen. Beiträge zur neuen Musik (Positions. Contributions to New Music), 10/1992, p. 41.

[4] Christian Scholz, »Reinigung einer unmöglich gewordenen Sprache« (Cleansing a Language that Has Become Impossible), Anmerkungen zur Lautpoesie in der DDR und zu den Arbeiten von Carlfriedrich Claus (Comments on Sound Poetry in the GDR and on the Works of Carlfriedrich Claus), in: Positionen. Beiträge zur neuen Musik (Positions. Contributions to New Music), No. 6/7 1991, p. 13.

[5] Ibid., p. 14.

[6] Georg Katzer, »Entwicklung und Perspektive der elektro-akustischen Musik« (Development of and Perspective for Electoacoustic Music), in: Musik und Gesellschaft (Music and Society), 6/1983, p. 354.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Lothar Voigtländer, Kompositorische Erfahrungen im Umgang mit Technik (Compositional Experiences Dealing with Technology), in: Musik und Gesellschaft (Music and Society), 6/1983, p. 355

[9] Klaus Nicolai, as referred to above, p. 29

[10] Armin Köhler, »Werkinterpretation: Robert Linke: Tannhäuser. Requiem« (Work Interpretation: Robert Linke: Tannhäuser. Requiem), in: Positionen. Beiträge zur neuen Musik (Positions. Contributions to New Music), 9/1991, p. 47

[11] Ibid.